Tuesday, March 5, 2013

The Style of Fermentation

•> direct fermentation with yeast
This is the simplest of methods. Yeast is used directly in proportion of 1 to 3% (fresh baker yeast) by weight of the flour. The three mechanical kneading methods (PVL, PI, or PA) can be used, but remember that the intensity of the kneading is decisive for the taste of bread.
(In my bakery: no bread is made in this way)

•> fermented dough pre-fermentation
This method that requires little preparation can reduce the time of bulk fermentation. It is to add in the "petrissée", the overnight dough, at a rate of 200 to 400 g per liter of require water. Fermented dough brings acidity resulting from fermentation, improve the taste of bread and the strength of the "petrissée".
(In my bakery: Pain Brié/Normand Sandwich Bread, Pain au Son/Bran Loaf/Bran Sandwich Loaf)

•> poolish pre-fermentation
It is a process that can extend traditional fermentation time, this time allows the compounds responsible for the taste to be developed. It is characterized by the preparation of a mixture water and flour in equal parts, several hours in advance. The strength of the paste is increased. Breads obtained have a more pleasant taste and a pronounced character without acidity. The crumb is open and irregular.
(In my bakery: Baguette sur Poolish)

•> sourdough pre-fermentation
The course includes sourdough microorganisms acidifying. Fermentation takes place from wild yeasts and bacteria presented in the raw materials used which promotes acid fermentation.
Baking sourdough gives the bread a taste asserts with acidity, a tangy smell and flavor full of characteristics. It provides a crumb that offers more resistance to the jaw, implying a longer chewing.
The sourdough bacteria produces two kinds of acid: lactic acid and acetic acid. Given a temperature and a hydration level, the acidity of sourdough may vary:
- A liquid leaven cultured in a warmer temperature promotes the synthesis of lactic acid and the bread will taste mild acidic.
(In my bakery: Ficelle a l'ancienne/Old-fashioned baguette, J-loaf)
- A paste leaven cultured in a colder temperature promotes the synthesis of acetic acid and the bread will taste more aggressive.
(In my bakery: Pain de Compagne/Country Sourdough)

•> sourdough pre-fermentation + fermented dough pre-fermentation
(In my bakery: Pain Paysan/Farmer Sourdough)

Friday, March 1, 2013

The baking process of bread.

> From 25 to 50 ° C
The temperature at the heart of the dough passes fairly quickly from 25 ° C to 50 ° C. The yeast ferments the sugars degrading to carbon dioxide. This expansion causes gas rapid development of dough. This action develops until the internal temperature reaches dough of 50 ° C. Ferments are destroyed while it is the end of the fermentation.

> From 50 to 80 ° C
The dough continues to develop under the influence of heat, the alveoli (air-holes) are formed. To 70 ° C, starch swells with water, gelled and freezes the proteins (gluten coagulation takes place). At this stage, the bread has reached its definitive volume.

> From 80 to 100 ° C
The internal temperature of the bread does not exceed 100 ° C practically during cooking. In contrast, the surface of the bread, its temperature can reach up to 230 ° C and 180 ° C, reactions occur on caramelization and non-enzymatic browning Maillard which characterize the formation of the crust.
Simple sugars situated on the surface of bread react and caramelized, a share of slightly bitter flavor colored and secondly a long series of compounds has varied odors.
In the Maillard reaction, it forms compounds unfamiliar giving a brown color more or less intense. Formed compounds are partially drawn toward the outside of the bread by the steam leaving the bread during cooking.